Football Recovery

127 Germplasm
127 Germplasm
508 Recorded Values
508 Recorded Values
2 Years
2 Years
2 Locations
2 Locations
1 Experiments
1 Experiments
Football Recovery

Lentil's produce pods usually containing two lens-shaped seeds. During processing the seeds are dehulled and whole seeds having cotyledons still attached are known as footballs. As such, the football recovery is the percentage of seeds which were unsplit after milling. Seed characteristics, including seed coat thickness, seed coat components, seed size, and seed dimensions, are important traits, influenced by both genetics and environment, which have been reported to influence the milling performance of lentil and other legume crops (Ramakrishnaiah and Kurien 1983; Kurien, 1984; Wang, 2008; Wood and Malcolmson, 2011; Wood et al., 2012).


  • Ramakrishnaiah, N., and P.P. Kurien. 1983. Variability in the dehulling characteristics of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) cultivars. J. Food Sci. Technol. 20:287291.
  • P.P Kurien. 1984. Dehulling technology of pulses. Res. Indust. 29(3):207214.
  • Wood, J.A., and L.J. Malcolmson. 2011. Pulse milling technologies. In: Tiwari, B.,  Gowen, A., and  McKenna, B. , editors, Pulse foods: Processing, quality, and nutraceutical applications. Academic Press, Cambridge, MA. p. 193221.
  • Wood, J.A.,  E.J. Knights,  G.M. Campbell, and M. Choct. 2012. Milling performance and other quality traits affected by seed shape in isogenic lines of desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). J. Agric. Sci. 4(10):244289.
Collection Methods
Genetic Mapping of Milling Quality Traits in Lentil

This experiment was measured using the following method(s): Football Recovery Plant Genome 2018 (percentage).

Table 1: Site-years for Genetic Mapping of Milling Quality Traits in Lentil*
Sutherland, Canada2013, 2014
Saskatchewan Pulse Growers farm, Canada2013, 2014
* Only contains site years with data for this trait.
Germplasm Phenotype Search 
Trait Distribution Plot 

The phenotypic data is best summarized in a trait distribution chart. To see the summary for your experiment of interest, select it from the drop-down below. If the trait was measured with multiple methods in this experiment, you will see each method displayed in it's own chart.

Select the experiment you are insterested in.
Football Recovery Plant Genome 2018 (percentage)
Figure: Comparison of observed Football Recovery (Football Recovery Plant Genome 2018) between site years for Genetic Mapping of Milling Quality Traits in Lentil.
Football Recovery was measured in percentage.Briefly, 30 g of uniformly dried seed samples were tempered overnight to 12.5% moisture and then the tempered seeds were dehulled with a grain testing mill (TM05, Satake Engineering Co., Hiroshima, Japan) fitted with a 36-mesh abrasive wheel rotating at 1100 rpm for 38 s (Wang, 2005). After dehulling, milled seed samples were passed through a series of slotted and round sieves to separate them into football and split fractions. All fractions were weighed, and the football recovery was determined via the following formula: (Wfootball / Wsample) x 100 where Wfootball the weight of footballs (dehulled whole seeds, in g), and Wsample is the weight of the seed sample. -Expert from (Subedi et al., 2018) Subedi, M., K. E. Bett, H. Khazaei, and A. Vandenberg. 2018. Genetic Mapping of Milling Quality Traits in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.). Plant Genome 11:170092. doi:10.3835/plantgenome2017.10.0092 Replicates were then averaged per germplasm within a single site-year. The chart shows the traditional box plot with the kernel density estimation flanking it. Thus values in a wider section of the plot represent higher probability that members of the sampled germplasm collection will show that phenotype.
Genetic Maps and QTL
The following table lists quantitative trait loci (QTL) available for the current trait.
Genetic MapTraitNamePeak PositionConfidence IntervalPeak LODAdditive Effect
There are no quantitative trait loci (QTL) asscoaited with the current trait.