Androgenesis-inducing stress treatments change phytohormone levels in anthers of three legume species (Fabaceae)

TitleAndrogenesis-inducing stress treatments change phytohormone levels in anthers of three legume species (Fabaceae)
AuthorsLulsdorf Monika, Yuan Hai Ying, Slater Susan, Vandenberg Albert, Han Xiumei, Zaharia L Irina
TypeJournal Article
JournalPlant cell reports
Language Abbreng
Publication Date2012 Jul
Publication ModelPrint-Electronic
Journal CountryGermany
Journal AbbreviationPlant Cell Rep.


<p><b>UNLABELLED</b></br>Legumes are recalcitrant to androgenesis and induction protocols were only recently developed for pea (Pisum sativum L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), albeit with low regeneration frequencies. Androgenesis is thought to be mediated through abscisic acid (ABA) but other phytohormones, such as auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins, have also been implicated. In view of improving induction protocols, the hormone content of pea, chickpea, and lentil anthers was measured after exposure to cold, centrifugation, electroporation, sonication, osmotic shock, or various combinations thereof using an analytical mass spectrometer. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) had a key function during the induction process. In pea, high concentrations of IAA-asparagine (IAA-Asp), a putative IAA metabolite, accumulated during the application of the different stresses. In chickpea, the IAA-Asp concentration increased 30-fold compared to pea but only during the osmotic shock treatment and likely as a result of the presence of exogenous IAA in the medium. In contrast, no treatment in lentil (Lens culinaris) invoked such an increase in IAA-Asp content. Of the various cytokinins monitored, only cis zeatin riboside increased after centrifugation and electroporation in pea and possibly chickpea. No bioactive gibberellins were detected in any species investigated, indicating that this hormone group is likely not linked to androgenesis in legumes. In contrast to the other stresses, osmotic shock treatment caused a reduction in the levels of all hormones analyzed, with the exception of IAA-Asp in chickpea. A short period of low hormone content might be a necessary transition phase for androgenesis induction of legumes.</p><p><b>KEY MESSAGE</b></br>Five androgenesis-inducing stress treatments changed content of ABA, auxin and cytokinin in anthers of three legumes. Osmotic shock treatment differed because it reduced hormone content to very low levels.</p>


Lulsdorf M, Yuan HY, Slater S, Vandenberg A, Han X, Zaharia LI. Androgenesis-inducing stress treatments change phytohormone levels in anthers of three legume species (Fabaceae). Plant cell reports. 2012 Jul; 31(7):1255-67.

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Related Species 

There are three main kinds of chickpeas: Desi, which has small, darker seeds and a rough coat; Bombay, which has slightly larger dark seeds; and Kabuli, which has lighter coloured seeds with a smooth coat. Chickpeas are an excellent source of the essential nutrients, iron, folate, phosphorus, protein and dietary fiber. Chickpeas are low in fat and most of this is polyunsaturated. Desi chickpeas have a markedly higher fiber content than Kabulis and hence a very low glycemic index which may make them suitable for people with blood sugar problems. The plant grows to between 20–50 cm high and has small feathery leaves on either side of the stem. Chickpea pods are short in length containing 2-3 seeds. ... [more]


Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is an important pulse crop with annual production of 3-4 Mt across 70 countries (Cubero et al. 2009. DOI 10.1079/9781845934873.0000; pg. 13). Lentils are a good source of protein, carbohydrates, micronutrients and vitamins for human nutrition and is consumed in more than 120 countries. Furthermore, their small seed size and flat shape make them relatively quick cooking and easily decorticated compared to most other grain legumes (Sharpe et al. 2013. BMC Genomics. DOI 10.1186/1471-2164-14-192). The Lentil plant has a bushy growth habit with a height of about 40 cm; the seeds are lens-shaped and usually grow two per pod. ... [more]


Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the first domesticated crops, and was the model crop for the foundational genetic studies by Gregor Mendel, which he first reported in 1865. Pea is grown in most temperate regions of the world with annual production over the past decade of 10-12 million tonnes of field pea and 14-17 million tonnes of vegetable pea. Pea belongs to the Leguminosae family and consists of two species, P. fulvum and P. sativum with several ‘wild’ subspecies of P. sativum. Canada is the leading producer and exporter of field pea in the world. Saskatchewan is the leading province in pea production followed by Alberta and Manitoba. ... [more]

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PMID: PubMedPMID:22399205
Research Area
Research Area 

The objectives of the Pulse Research Group Physiology Program is to investigate whole plant and field responses of crops, particularly pulse crops, to nutrient, water and weather.  To understand and improve yield formation in pulse crops in a warming climate.  To investigate and improve nitrogen ... [more]